Article 2. Conclusive Presumptions of California Evidence Code >> Division 5. >> Chapter 3. >> Article 2.

The presumptions established by this article, and all other presumptions declared by law to be conclusive, are conclusive presumptions.
The facts recited in a written instrument are conclusively presumed to be true as between the parties thereto, or their successors in interest; but this rule does not apply to the recital of a consideration.
Whenever a party has, by his own statement or conduct, intentionally and deliberately led another to believe a particular thing true and to act upon such belief, he is not, in any litigation arising out of such statement or conduct, permitted to contradict it.
A tenant is not permitted to deny the title of his landlord at the time of the commencement of the relation.